Causes of depression and risk factors, know them

Causes of depression and risk factors, know them

Depression is a mood disorder characterized by feelings of sadness, frustration, loss of passion, resignation, or anger that affect the performance of daily tasks. Depression causes It is caused by many factors, including genetics, a change in brain chemistry, chronic diseases, as well as going through painful and traumatic life events. [1]

This article deals with all the causes of psychological depression in different age groups, and the factors that increase the risk of suffering from it.

Depression causes

may happen depression As a result of a combination of genetic, biological and environmental factors, a person can develop depression for no apparent reason.

Below we will mention the most prominent ones Depression causes:

genetic factors

Hereditary genes may play a role in depression, as a person’s risk of depression increases if a family member has it or other mood disorders, and the American Psychiatric Association has indicated that when one identical twin has depression, the other twin has a 70% chance of developing it. [2] [3]

Scientists believe that there is a set of genes involved in the development of depression, but it is still unclear so far. [3]

It is worth noting that depression may appear in people who do not have a family history of it or other mental illnesses. [2]

biochemical factors

Can be located Depression causes Also for biological factors, including: [3]

  • Neurotransmitter imbalance: may return Depression causes an imbalance of some of the neurotransmitters in the brain that have a role in regulating mood and feelings of happiness. A low or greatly increased level of these neurotransmitters in some people may increase the risk of depression. Examples of these vectors are: [3]
  • Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes that occur in women are a cause of depression, especially during the reproductive years. [3]

chronic diseases

Constant stress and pain can lead to depression. Certain chronic diseases can also increase the risk of depression, such as: [3]

  • Diseases that cause chronic pain.
  • Sleep Disorders.
  • Thyroid disorders.
  • Addison’s disease.
  • Liver diseases.
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • cancer.

Also read: Physical symptoms of depression

Risk factors for depression

Risk factors for depression include: [1] [4]

  • Age and gender: Women and the elderly are the most vulnerable group to depression.
  • Exposure to shock: Experiencing trauma such as the loss or death of a loved one, especially in early childhood, is Causes of later depression, when trauma affects the way the body responds to fear and psychological stress, and exposure to neglect, abuse, or physical or sexual abuse may also lead to depression.
  • feel pain Feeling pain, whether emotional or physical, over time can be the cause of depression.
  • Major changes in life: Changes in a person’s life may increase the risk of depression even if they are happy events, such as getting a new job, marriage or having a child, as well as other events, such as divorce, job loss and retirement.
  • Social and economic situation: Economic problems and low social status may increase the risk of depression.
  • Vitamin D deficiency: This can be one of the causes of depression Vitamin D deficiencyIt has been proven that there is a connection between depression and vitamin D deficiency in the body.
  • Medicines: Depression can be caused by the use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids, birth control pills, and beta blockers.
  • use drugs: Drug abuse and alcoholism are one of them Causes severe depressionAbout 30% of people who use drugs suffer from severe depression, and although drinking alcohol or using drugs gives a temporary feeling of happiness, it eventually leads to depression.

Also read:

causes seasonal depression

return reasons winter depression short winter days and little exposure to sunlight; This affects the body’s biological clock, which is affected by light. In addition, weak sunlight leads to lower levels of serotonin in the brain, which affects mood. [3]

Seasonal changes also disrupt the level of melatonin in the body, which causes changes in mood and sleep disturbances. [3]

Also read: Are we more vulnerable to depression in winter?

Causes depression in the morning

People with depression may experience worsening symptoms at certain times of the day and this often occurs in the morning, while in some cases a person may have depression and depression only in the morning, what doctors call morning depression. [5]

can return Causes depression upon awakening to the same factors that lead to depression, but it may also occur for other reasons, such as: [5]

  • Not getting enough sleep at night due to many problems, including medical conditions such as Sleep Apnea.
  • Increase the body’s response to the secretion of the hormone cortisol in the morning, which may lead to feelings of depression in the morning.
  • An increase in the level of interleukin-6 in the morning, a chemical secreted by the immune system, has been observed in people with depression, schizophrenia and other mental illnesses.

Causes of depression in adolescents and children

There are several reasons other than genetic and biochemical factors that play a role in adolescent depression, as adolescents face many challenges that expose them to sadness, depression, and feelings of anxiety. [6]

include reasons Depression in children and adolescents the following: [6] [7] [8] [9]

  • bullying or assault.
  • Addiction to social networks or abuse.
  • Exposure to cruel treatment and violence from parents.
  • undergo trauma, such as physical abuse or sexual blackmail.
  • suffer from learning difficulties or academic pressures and fear of failure.
  • suffer from other health conditions, such as eating disorders, anxiety or attention deficit disorder.
  • sick with chronic diseases.
  • Alcoholism or drug abuse.

Also read: How to deal with depression in adolescents and children

causes depression in women

Depression is more common in women than in men, because women go through hormonal changes during their life in the following periods: [10]

  • premenstrual syndrome It is believed to affect neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin.
  • Pregnancy and Birth
  • period before menopause.

Also read: Simple steps to overcome depression in women

causes depression in men

return Causes of depression in young people For many reasons in addition to the previous reasons, including the following: [11]

  • The difficulties of life, unemployment and abuse.
  • Exposure to stress and pressures at work.
  • Exposure to trauma due to the death of a family member or relative, and this is one of the causes of sudden depression in men.
  • Divorce or job loss.
  • Alcoholism or drug abuse.

causes depression in the elderly

Changes in the lives of adults may increase the risk of depression, such as: [12]

  • suffer from chronic diseases or feel pain.
  • Moving from home to nursing home.
  • Child alienation and loneliness.
  • Death of a spouse or close friends.
  • Inability to take care of themselves and the need for help.

can return causes depression in the elderly Also suffer from health conditions that cause depression, including: [12]

  • Thyroid disorders.
  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • heart disease;
  • cancer.
  • brain attack
  • Dementia or Alzheimer’s.

Depression screening test

This test is used to determine the percentage of probability that a person will suffer from depression, and this depends on the frequency of feelings of depression and anhedonia during the two weeks before the test, and giving a certain number of points for each case.


The points resulting from this test can be divided in the form of percentages of a person’s possibility of suffering from depression as follows:

• Zero point: less than or equal to 0.6%.

• One point: more than 0.6%.

• Two points: more than 1.3%.

• 3 points: more than 5.4%.

• 4 points: more than 15.7%.

• 5 points: more than 17.9%.

• 6 points: more than 58.1%.

A score of 3 on this test is a defining point for diagnosing depression, as receiving 3 points or more means an increased likelihood of a person suffering from depression.

Calculation results

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