Complications and risks of medical gastroesophageal reflux disease

Complications and risks of medical gastroesophageal reflux disease

GERD can cause moderate to severe complications, and the risk of complications increases Complications of GERD If his symptoms are chronic or acute and have not been treated or controlled.

In this article, learn about the complications of GERD related to the esophagus or other parts of the body.

Complications of GERD

GERD often causes unpleasant symptoms, such as heartburn that may spread to the chest and throat, nausea and difficulty swallowing. However, in some cases it can cause more complex and serious health problems. [1]

Here are the main complications of GERD:


ready Esophagitis A common complication of GERD is swelling or irritation of the lining of the esophagus as a result of severe or chronic acid reflux. [1][3]

Symptoms of esophagitis include: [2][3]

  • dysphagia;
  • Pain while swallowing.
  • sore throat.
  • Heartburn and chest pain.
  • hoarseness.

In some cases, chronic or untreated esophagitis can cause related complications, such as esophageal ulcers and esophageal strictures. [2]

Esophageal ulcer

Esophageal ulcer, a type of ulcer in the esophagus peptic ulcer This occurs as a result of acid reflux causing damage to the lining of the esophagus. Its symptoms are: [2][4]

  • Burning pain in the chest, often in the middle of the chest.
  • pain when swallowing;
  • nausea;
  • indigestion.
  • anorexia.
  • Vomiting, which may contain blood.
  • Blood in the stool
  • Weight loss.

It should be noted that esophageal ulcers may not produce any symptoms in some people. If left untreated, it can cause more serious complications, such as the development of Esophageal perforation or a bleeding ulcer in the esophagus. [2]

Esophageal stenosis

Neglecting to treat GERD or treating its complications can cause GERD Narrowing of the esophagus This is the result of the following: [2][5]

  • Esophageal scarring or abnormal growth of tissue in the esophagus, resulting in narrowing of the esophageal lumen.
  • Collagen is invested in the self-healing process of ulcerative esophagitis, and over time this causes a narrowing of the esophageal lumen.

Symptoms and complications of esophageal stricture include: [2][5]

  • dysphagia;
  • Pain in swallowing, due to difficulty passing food or liquids through the esophagus into the stomach.
  • heavy breathing
  • Solid food is trapped in the esophagus, which increases the risk of choking.
  • Malnutrition and dehydration, as a result of not being able to eat or drink easily.

Barrett’s esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus, a condition that refers to the replacement of squamous cells lining the lower esophagus with gland-like cells lining the intestines. As a result of continuous damage to the esophagus by stomach acid. [2][5]

Barrett’s esophagus is Complications of GERD It is twice as common in men as in women. This presence is a risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, which can be life-threatening. [2][6]

It should be noted that there are no distinct symptoms that may appear due to Barrett’s esophagus, but patients who have GERD-related symptoms. [6]

Read also: symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Nausea when smelling or looking at food, sometimes vomiting, lack of appetite, sometimes hunger and strange movements in the stomach.

Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer is one of them Complications of GERD are uncommon relatively. [1]

Increases all disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease Barrett’s esophagus increases the risk of esophageal cancer, in particular Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, which is the most common type of esophageal cancer. It usually affects the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. [7]

Symptoms of esophageal adenocarcinoma include: [2]

  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • cough;
  • Chest pain.
  • severe heartburn;
  • Severe indigestion.
  • Weight loss.

Other complications of GERD

GERD can cause several health problems related to other parts of the body, including: [1][2][8]

  • Aspiration pneumoniaBreathing stomach acid back into the throat, mouth or lungs can cause aspiration pneumonia. Symptoms include a strong cough, fever and shortness of breath.
  • Dental problems in the mouthFrequent reflux of stomach acid into the mouth can cause many dental diseases, including: Erosion of tooth enamelTooth loss, chronic bad breath.
  • asthmaIn a two-way relationship, non-allergic asthma is related to GERD, as acid reflux can trigger or worsen asthma symptoms. Conversely, some asthma symptoms, such as coughing, can cause a sudden change in pressure in the chest and abdominal area, which triggers reflux symptoms.

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